What did the Arabs get as a result of World War I?
The truce which ensued World War I in 1918, led to the formation of Occupied Enemy Territory Administration by the allies to provide Palestine, Iraq and Syria with a provisional government. In 1919, the General Syrian Congress held in Damascus called for giving Allied recognition to Syria as an independent state, which would include Palestine, and Faisal as the king. The proposal stayed undecided, while the congress declared Syria as an independent state with a one-sided decision in March 1920. In the similar way, Iraq declared its independence, announcing Abdullah as its king. Both of these promulgates were rejected by the League of Nations Council which decided to enforce the Allied authorization in the Middle East.
The new enforcement for the Allied authorization was carried out in a conference held in April 1920 in San Remo, Italy, where the representatives of Belgium, Greece, Italy, Japan, France and Great Britain gathered to discuss issues which rose as a result of the World War I.
Three categories were made for the authorized territories for assigning them to individual powers, in accordance with their location and the level of political and economic development. Class A comprised of Iraq (assigned to Britain), Syria and Lebanon (assigned to France) and Palestine (assigned to Britain).
Syria was given to French authorization after the French forces took over Damascus in July 1920. Faisal was sent into exile by the French but was positioned as the king of Iraq the next year by the British. The French rule enforced on Syria turned out to be oppressive and Syrians were kept under a seething leadership. Following the revolts which took place in 1925, the League of Nations demanded self-government for Syria, obligating the French to move away from the greater military rule. However, no decision was carried out until after World War II.
The British authorization over Palestine met objections from Muslims who reacted skeptically to this decision. They considered this pronouncement to be completely in favor of Zionism which would put the Muslim community in Palestine in an endangered position. Their worries signaled it as a revival of the Crusader actuation. Therefore, there were no Muslim representatives in favor of this allotment in 1920, all disagreed.
Rather, the Muslim community in the Western Jordan acknowledged themselves as Southern Syrians and declared their fealty to Damascus. This association, which was developed on the grounds that the great-great-uncle of King Abdullah II of Jordan ruled Damascus, was advocated by none apart from a virulent sectarian man, Amin al-Husayni. However, the notion of this Southern Syrian-Damascus association was killed as this Hashemite king was overthrown by the French in July 1920. Shaken by these events, Palestinian Muslims tried their best to make something positive out of this drastic situation.
“After the recent events in Damascus, we have to effect a complete change in our plans here. Southern Syria no longer exists. We must defend Palestine.” These words were spoken by a notable Jerusalemite who commented on the ongoing situation just days before the fall of the Hashemite rule.
In December 1920, the Palestinian leadership took on the aim of achieving an independent state as a result of this statement. This effort was taken over by Amin al-Husayni after a few years.
A territory, Transjordan, was created in Palestine, comprising of almost 80% of the British authorization with Abdullah established as the ruler of this region by Winston Churchill in 1921. In 1925, another 60,000 sq. km. of land was added to Transjordan by the British which created a length of land whose purpose was to connect Iraq with Transjordan and separate Syria from the Arabian regions.
In this way, all the major Middle Eastern countries had been established till mid-1920s, all expect the agreed Jewish terrain in Palestine.
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